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The Journal of Advances in Parasitology

Research Article
J. Adv. Parasitol. 5(2): 29-34
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Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1*, Waleed Arafa1, Saad Soliman Ghanem2, Omima Ramadan Abdel-Fatah3, Ahmed Anwar Wahba4

1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt; 2Directorate of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Administration, El-Dakhla, El-Wadi El-Gadid, Egypt; 3Animal Health Research Institute, El-Fayoum, Egypt; 4Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza.

Abstract | Background and objective: Bovine theileriosis is a global tick-borne disease and it has emerged as one of the major constraints affecting livestock production in Egypt. The disease is caused by the hemoparasite, Theileria annulata, which is transmitted by the tick vector, Hyalomma species. Materials and methods: A total of 376 Egyptian female Balady-Friesian cross cattle were randomly selected in El-Wadi El-Gadid province, Egypt and were examined using microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears and PCR-dependant molecular identification using a Theileria annulata-specific primer pair,Cytob1,targeting the amplicon of 312 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results: It has been found that 102 (27.13%) animals had clinical symptoms of piroplasmosis, predominantly enlargement of superficial lymph nodes and a sustainable high fever (40-42°C),anorexia, loss of generalized conditions, lacrimation, corneal affections, ocuo-nasal discharge, dyspnea and diarrhea. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears revealed that 35 (9.31%) of examined animals showed the presence of intra-lymphocytic and/or intra-erythrocytic stages of hemoparasites. Various stages including macroschizonts, microschizonts and merozoites were demonstrated in thin blood smears. Application of PCR elucidated that 11.44% (43/376)animals had theileriosis indicated by the appearance of specific diagnostic bands. Most of clinically-positive animals and all those positive by the use of microscopic examination and PCR are associated with the existence of ticks vector. Conclusion: The present work revealed the prevalence of bovine theileriosis in El-Wadi El-Gadid, Egypt using microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears (9.31%) and PCR (11.44%).To reduce economic losses induced in cattle due to theileriosis, a considerable attention and veterinary care are mandatory to be done by authorities and veterinarians through elimination of the tick vectors and frequent treatment of infected animals.

Keywords | Cattle, Theileria annulata, Hyalomma spp., PCR, Egypt.