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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Short Communication
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 1 (1S): 14 - 17. Special issue-1 (Veterinarians approaches for safeguarding animal health and production)
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Jones Boby, Harendra Kumar*, Ajevar Ganesan, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Krishnaswamy Narayanan
Animal Reproduction Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar–243122 India
*Corresponding author: hkumar1960@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
India, by virtue of its huge cattle population ranks second in world cow milk production, however the per–capita availability of milk is less owing to the lower production potential of cows. This could be attributed to the harsh tropical climate and high incidence of reproductive disorders. Among the various postpartum reproductive disorders, the incidence of retention of fetal membranes (RFM) is highest. Identifying the RFM cows ante–partum would help in the better management and minimize its adverse consequences on the post–partum fertility. During the peri–partum period, a cytokine mediated immune mechanism operates at foeto–maternal interface for the successful placental separation and any failure or delay in this process precipitates RFM. Hence, we hypothesized that the estimation of serum level of cytokines– IL–10, TNF–α and IL–6 would, in part, reveal the immune changes taking place during advanced pregnancy and aid in predicting the RFM. Accordingly, the levels of IL–10, TNF–α and IL–6 were estimated in pre–partum serum samples of 81 cows by bovine specific Enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). Out of 81 cows studied, 8 developed RFM and the rest calved (n=73) normally. IL–10 and TNF–α concentration was found to be significantly higher in RFM cows than their normal counterparts (P<0.01), whereas the IL–6 concentration was higher (P<0.01) in normal cows than the RFM group. This study for the first time demonstrates that these cytokines are associated with the development of RFM and, therefore, their significant level of detection could serve as a predictive tool. However, studies with large number of RFM cows are needed to ascertain the utility of these cytokines as markers.

Key Words: Cow; Cytokine; Pregnancy; RFM; Marker