Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 4 (8): 398 - 404
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Thirumalaisamy Thirumalaisamy1*, Manikam Ragavan Purushothaman2, Periyannan Vasantha Kumar2, Palanisamy Selvaraj3, Amirthalingam Natarajan4, Subramaniyan Senthilkumar2, Pasuvalingam Visha3, Dhinesh Kumar Ramasamy1, Thulasiraman Parkunan1

1ICAR – National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India; 2Department of Animal Nutrition; 3Department of Veterinary Physiology; 4Animal Feed Analytical and Quality Assurance Laboratory, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, TANUVAS, India.

Abstract | Cottonseed meal (CSM) is a by-product from cotton oil extraction industry. The protein content of CSM varies depending on the extent of hulling and the oil extraction process. Modern cottonseed processing industries are equipped to decorticate cottonseed and hence the meals obtained are higher in protein and lesser in fibre than the undecorticated cottonseed meal. CSM had low calcium (0.15 - 0.25%) and high total phosphorus (0.95 - 1.71%), essential amino acids like lysine (1.76 - 2.13%), threonine (1.24 - 1.58%) was lower and comparable methionine (0.48 - 0.78%) when compared to conventional protein source viz., soybean meal (SBM). Similarly the mean digestibility coefficient of essential amino acids, dry matter digestibility and nitrogen retention was found to be lower. Gossypol is an anti-nutritional factor that decreases the utilization CSM. The total and free gossypol content of CSM as reported by various authors varied from 1.16 – 1.52 and 0.024 – 0.82 percent respectively. Various studies showed that CSM inclusion in broilers has improved feed intake, body growth and carcass characters. Gossypol binds with epsilon group of lysine, it unavailable to the bird’s utilization and also bind with free iron in the plasma, it causes anaemia, while supplementation of synthetic lysine, iron supplementation has improved blood biochemical profile and their performance. CSM inclusion reduces the cost of feed when compared to other conventional protein sources. Comparatively few researches on the utilization of CSM in poultry nutrition have been undertaken. In this review, the chemical composition, nutrient and feeding value of CSM in poultry are discussed.

Keywords | Cottonseed meal, Lysine, Iron supplementation, Growth performance, Cost effectiveness