Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 3 (1S): 1 -9. Special Issue-1 (Biotechnological and molecular approaches for diagnosis, prevention and control of infectious diseases of animals)
http://dx.doi.org/10.14737/journal.aavs/2015/3.1s.1.9
View Full HTML
Download PDF

Neha Bhardwaj1, 2, Sanjeev Bhardwaj1, 2, Pooja Devi1, Swati Dahiya2*, Madan Lal Singla1, Chirravoori Ghanshyam1, Minakshi Prasad1*

1Agrionics, CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh-160030, India; 2University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, India.

*Correspondence | Swati Dahiya, Department of Vetrinary Microbiology, Lala lajpat Rai University of Vetrinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, Haryana, India; Email: swatidahiya@yahoo.com; Minakshi Prasad, Department of Animal Biotechnology, Lala lajpat Rai University of Vetrinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, Haryana, India; Email: minakshi.abt@gmail.com

Abstract
Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has become a worldwide public health problem in veterinary and human medicine. The emergence of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus sp. has led to complications in treatment of bovine mastitis, wound infections in horses, dogs, pigs etc. and bacterimia in humans ranging from postules, sepsis to even death. To address this problem of antibiotic resistance, several attempts are being made of which, phage therapy offers a promising alternative. Herein, we report a phage based antibacterial nanoplatform having bactericidal potential against an isolated methicillin resistant skin bacterium, Staphylococcus arlettae as a model organism. The bacteriophages (phages) used in the study were isolated from sewage water via enrichment method against an isolated methicillin resitant skin bacterium, Staphylococcus arlettae (GenBank accession no. KF589201.1). The isolated phages were characterized thereafter for their host specificity and morphology by plaque assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. Intrinsic charge characteristic of phages was utilized for their immobilization on silica NPs monolyer using different conjugation chemistry, through covalent/electrostatic/ physisorption interactions. The efficacy of each immobilization approach was compared using plaque assay. Silica NPs of size ~ 300 nm were synthesized by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate in an alkaline environment, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particles were dispersed at air/water interface for monolayer formation on polyvinyllidine fluoride (PVDF) membrane via Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) thin film deposition technique at 15 mN/m surface pressure. It was observed that 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) treated membranes act as a better bactericidal platform due to proper orientation of phages by means of electrostatic and covalent interaction as compared to phage bound by physical adsorption. Moreoever, high surface/ volume ratio of NPs further helped in improving bactericidal performance, associated with large loading capacity of phages on film. Thus, the present study can facilitate in design and development of an effective anti-bacterial compositions and dressings in veterinary medicine and animal agriculture to combat Staphylococcal infections.

Keywords | Silica nanoparticles, Langmuir Blodgett Film, Phages, Anti-bacterial