Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 3 (2S): 64 - 72. Special Issue-2 (Reviews on Trends and Advances in Safeguarding Terrestrial /Aquatic Animal Health and Production)
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Mohammad Jalil Zorriehzahra1, 2*, Reza Banaederakhshan3

1Iranian Coldwater Fishes Scientific Society (CFS); 2Aquatic animal Health & Diseases Dept.; 3Shrimp Division in Aquatic animal Health & Diseases Dept., Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO), Tehran-Karaj Highway, Paykan shahr, Sarve Azad Ave., Botanical National Blvd. Tehran, I.R. Iran.

*Correspondence | Mohammad Jalil Zorriehzahra, Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO), Tehran, Iran; Email:

Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) also named Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease or AHPND should be considered as a new emerging shrimp disease that has been attacked to shrimp farms in Southeast Asia. It was detected in shrimp farms in southern China as first record in 2009 and then in Hainan Island in 2010 and afterward in Viet Nam and Malaysia in 2011 and consequently in the eastern part of Thailand since 2012 and widely spread to other culture areas of Thailand. Its annual losses are estimated more than USD1 billion. Outbreaks of EMS naturally occur in the first 30 days after stocking a freshly arranged shrimp pond, and rate of mortality can pass beyond 70%. The scientists recently found that (EMS/AHPND) could be initiated by a bacterial agent that termed V. parahaemolyticus is transferred through oral and then localizes the shrimp gastrointestinal tract and create a poison that causes tissue devastation and invalidism of the shrimp digestive system known as the hepatopancreas. So far, no official report was recorded in human cells. Therefore, it is unlikely that the specific strain of V. parahaemolyticus will pose any risk when consumed by human beings. It causes some clinical signs which include pale discoloration and atrophy (size reduction) of hepatopancreas, which appears granular when pressed between the fingers, with occasional black streaks. Other clinical signs include pale and empty stomach and gut, reduced growth, movable shell and black discoloration. Also, lethargy, swimming sluggishly along the dikes, spiral swimming and reduced flourish and feeding are observed in EMS/AHPND. More investigation are needed and should be continue on the development of rapid diagnostic tests for prompt detection of the EMS/ AHPND pathogen that will facilitate developed management of hatcheries and ponds, and could be lead to a long-term elucidation for the disease aspects.

Keywords | Shrimp, Early mortality syndrome, Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease, EMS/ AHPNS, Iran