Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 2 (8): 438 - 446
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Suresh L Mehta*, Raghu Vemuganti
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53792 USA.

Stroke is one of the major contributors of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It results due to sudden blockade of blood flow into the brain thereby leading to breakdown of hemodynamic, biochemical and metabolic processes in the affected territory. These alterations are dependent on the severity and duration of the ischemia and modulated by pathophysiologic mechanisms that include excitotoxicity, calcium overload, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, acidosis, inflammation and activation of cell death pathways. As there is no current therapy to minimize post-stroke brain damage and most of the clinical trials failed, it is imperative to design novel approaches including glutamate receptor antagonists, free radical scavengers/ anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic agents, and growth factors to prevent the progression and increase the plasticity of neuronal damage after stroke. Additionally, rigorous in vitro and in vivo animal testing of potential drugs molecules is necessary to reduce the failure of clinical trials.