Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 2 (4S): 17 - 23. Special Issue-4 (Reviews on Frontiers in Animal and Veterinary Sciences)
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Baldev Raj Gulati1*, Akhil Kumar Gupta2, Surender Kumar Kadian2
1National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, Haryana, India; 2Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, Haryana, India
*Corresponding author:

Since the introduction of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the New York City of USA in 1999, it has become a global public health concern. The outbreak of WNV has been reported in various parts of the world. The global spread of WNV has indicated that WNV is a re–emerging pathogen. Evidence of WNV infection in India is reported by sero–prevalence in 1952 and subsequently by virus isolation from mosquito, bat and man. Most of the WNV isolates from India belong to Lineage 5, while occasional isolates belonging to lineage 1a have also been reported, which are shown to be more virulent than those of lineage 5 isolates. WNV usually causes mild febrile illness but sometime neuro–invasive disorder has been reported. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for human beings, although a number of veterinary vaccines have been licensed for horses. The information about prevalence of WNV among animal population in India is scanty. This review attempts to compile and analyze the information on WNV epidemiology, diagnosis and phylogeny from Indian perspective.

Key Words: West Nile Virus, India, Animals, Humans, Phylogenic diversity, Lineage 5