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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Mini-Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 2 (4): 226 - 232
http://dx.doi.org/10.14737/journal.aavs/2014/2.4.226.232
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Mani Arul Prakash1, Arumugam Kumaresan1*, Ayyasamy Manimaran1, Rahul Kumar Joshi1, Siddhartha Shankar Layek1, Tushar Kumar Mohanty1, Ravi Ram Divisha2
1Theriogenology Laboratory, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal – 132 001 Haryana; 2Division of Veterinary Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad – 500 030, Andhra Pradesh
*Corresponding author: ogkumaresan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Livestock farmers always have a wish for producing young ones of desired sex. Among the several techniques available, use of sexed semen for artificial insemination is recognized as more pragmatic and easy way to pre – select the sex of the offspring. Selective use of sexed semen in breeding will not only increase the genetic progress from the daughter – dam path but would also help in producing good male germplasm from elite bulls for future breeding. Several attempts have been made, elsewhere in the globe, to develop methods that efficiently separate bovine semen into fractions containing higher concentrations of X – or Y – bearing sperm. These technologies include sex specific antibodies, centrifugation and flow cytometry. Of these attempts, the only method proven to be commercially viable is flow cytometry. However, sorting pressure, speed, electrical deviation, laser radiation all leads to membrane alteration and pre – capacitation like changes in the sorted sperm leading to reduced fertility. Despite these limitations, production of sexed semen usually followed by cryopreservation is being used commercially for cattle production. Development of the instrument for increasing the sorting rate and also purity of sorting without affecting the viability and fertility is still an active area of research. The aim of this review is to update the readers with the recent developments in sexing of spermatozoa with special reference to farm animals.

Key Words: Sex – sorting, Spermatozoa, Farm animals, Flow cytometry