Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 9(10): 1641-1648
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Hitham Abdel-Saeed1, Reem R. Tahon2*, Mohamed E. Ali1

1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt; 2Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Abstract | Feline unilateral hydronephrosis is a critical disease in cat medicine. Twenty-six domestic cats from the teaching veterinary hospital and private clinics in Egypt were used in this study. For the diagnostic study, we examined twelve healthy cats and nine cats suffering from unilateral hydronephrosis. Diagnosis included physical examination, laboratory analysis, and ultrasonographical and radiographical examinations. In physical examinations of diseased cases, the respiration rate was increased, anemia, pale mucous membrane, and pollakiuria. In hematological parameters, significant decrease in packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, and Red blood cells (RBCs) count, while white blood cells (WBCs) and absolute neutrophilic count were increased. Radiopaque renal calculi appeared radiologically in some cases. Ultrasonographically, an increase in the length of the kidney and severe enlargement with loss of architecture of renal parenchyma and also severely enlarged renal pelvises were gathered. For the anatomical study, seven cases (two of them were in common with diagnostic examination) were dissected. Kidney were smooth unipapillated with the right kidney positioned more cranial than the left one. Radiologically, both kidneys might appear mostly overlapping each other also the radiological length of the healthy kidney was 3 times the length of the second lumbar vertebra (L2) while the length of the hydronephrotic kidney reached 3.5 times the length of L2. The normal and hydronephrotic renal anatomical measurements were included. We concluded that not only the increase in kidney size indicated unilateral hydronephrosis but also loss of renal parenchymal architecture ultrasonographically and anatomically an increase in renal pelvis width in addition to significant changes in biochemical parameters.

Keywords | Kidney, Cat, Unilateral hydronephrosis, Anatomy, Diagnosis