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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 2 (2): 73 - 77
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Muhammad Zubair*, Maqbool Ahmad
Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding author:

The fetal membranes which are commonly called placenta are the connections between dam and fetus for the normal circulation of nutrients to fetus. If the placenta is not expelled within normal time, it is called as retention of fetal membrane. Retention of fetal membrane is the common cause of reduction of fertility in cattle. For the management of this disease, it is necessary to understand the etiology and pathophsiology of this disease. The normal separation of fetal membranes consists of complex hormonal process that starts before parturition in cattle. The causes of retention of fetal membranes include immature placentomes due to infections, induction of parturition, difficult birth, hormonal imbalance and nutritional deficiencies. The treatments which are commonly used for the retention of fetal membranes do not show the significant effects. The use of antibiotics minimizes the growth of microorganism in retained fetal membrane but they have not shown improvement in the subsequent fertility of affected animals. Recently, new treatments like injection of collagenase enzyme into umbilical arteries and intrauterine use of ozone gas produces useful results but these therapies are costly. The objective of this review is to understand the physiological processes of fetal membranes expulsion, causes and treatments of retention of fetal membranes.

Key Words: Cattle, Retention and fetal membranes