Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 9(2): 280-288
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Ahmed G. Hegazi1, Asmaa S. El-Houssiny2, Walid M.A. Sadek3, Faiz M. Al-Guthami4, Ahmed F.M. Al-Gethami4, Ahmed M.A. Sadik3, Tarek Korany Farag5*

1Zoonotic Diseases Department, National Research Centre, Dokki-Giza, Egypt; 2Microwave Physics and Dielectric Department, National Research Centre, Dokki-Giza, Egypt; 3Sheep and Goat Research Department, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki-Giza, Egypt; 4Al Guthami Foundation, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

Abstract | This investigation aimed to improve and enhance the immune system status of newborn Egyptian-Nubian goats using Alginate nanoparticles (ALg NPs) as a new drug carrier for the oral delivery of propolis. Propolis was selected as a natural additive of colostrum due to its amazing functional properties. In addition, through its implementation into ALg NPs, its handling properties have been improved and potentiated. Alginate-propolis NPs were prepared by the controlled gellification method. Morphological analysis of the ALg-propolis NPs was examined using a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The flavonoids content of the propolis was analyzed by HPLC. Thirty twins Egyptian Nubian goats (Zaraibi) kids were randomly allotted into three groups; 10 in each group. The rearing systems during the suckling period were extended to 13 weeks as follows: C: Free suckling (FS), where the born kids were kept with their dams until being 13 weeks old (control). T1: (FS) + 0.6 ml propolis (twice/week). T2: (FS) + 0.06 ml Alg-propolis NPs (twice/week). The kids were weighed biweekly and the daily body weight gains were recorded. The serum levels of immunoglobulins; IgA and IgG, serum total protein as well as the serum cytokine levels; IFN-γ, TNFα, IL1β, and IL6 after treatment with propolis and ALg-Propolis NPs were determined at different treatment time. The HPLC analysis revealed 15 flavonoid compounds that are characteristic of propolis. The TEM result showed that the ALg-Propolis NPs are discrete and have spherical shapes with small particle sizes in the nanometer scale (10 nm). Also, the results revealed that both propolis and ALg-Propolis NPs caused a significant increase (P<0.05) of the serum IgG and IgA immunoglobulin levels and a decrease of the serum cytokine levels (IFN-γ, TNFα, IL1β, and IL6) of newborn Egyptian-Nubian goats. However, the ALg-Propolis NPs have a more potent effect on the IgG and IgA immunoglobulin levels and cytokine levels than pure propolis. The results indicated that the nano-encapsulation of propolis within ALg NPs reflected on the health status of the kids, increased the titer of the immunoglobulins; IgG and IgA and reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines. It could conclude that the feasibility of developing a successful propolis oral delivery nano-system on an industrial scale using the ALg NPs to improve the immune status of the Egyptian-Nubian newborn kids.

Keywords | Propolis, Alginate NPs, Egyptian-Nubian goat, Immunoglobulins, Cytokines