Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 8(12): 1256-1265
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Walid M.A. Sadek1, Asmaa S. El-Houssiny2, Ayman Al-Mwafy1, Tarek Korany Farag3*, Ahmed Al-Gethami4, Sara I.M. Grawish1, Ahmed G. Hegazi5

1Sheep and Goat Research Department, Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki-Giza, Egypt; 2Microwave Physics and Dielectric Department, National Research Centre, Dokki-Giza, Egypt; 3Parasitology and Animal Diseases Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; 4Al Guthami Foundation, Saudi Arabia; 5Zoonotic Diseases Department, National Research Centre, Dokki-Giza, Egypt.

Abstract | The aim of this study is to assess the possibility of using Propolis and Alginate-propolis nanoparticles (ALg-propolis NPs) to improve the health status of newborn Egyptian Nubian kids as a natural additive or as a replacement of colostrum to avoid the increasing rate of mortality under natural the system. Alginate ALg NPs were prepared by the controlled gellification method. Morphological analysis of the Alg-propolis NPs was examined using a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Fifty twins Egyptian Nubian goats (Zaraibi) kids were randomly allotted and divided into five groups, 10 in each group. The rearing systems during the suckling period which extended to 13 weeks are as follow: C: Free suckling (FS), where the born kids were kept with their dams till being 13 weeks old (control). T1: (FS) + 0.6 ml propolis (twice/week). T2: (FS) + 0.0 6 ml ALg-propolis NPs (twice/week). T3: Artificial suckling on 100% goat’s milk in the first week (AS) + 0.6 ml propolis (duplicate dose after birth) then (FS) till being 13 weeks old + 0.6 ml propolis (twice/week). T4: (AS) + 0.06 ml ALg-propolis NPs (duplicate dose after birth) then (FS) + 0.06 ml Alg-P NPs (twice/week). The kids were fed either by mother feeding or artificial feeding on colostrum and supplied with propolis or ALg-propolis. The kids were weighted biweekly and the daily body weight gains were recorded. The kids’ body weight, milk consumption, and milk chemical were analyzed. Blood was collected for hematological parameter and serum biochemical analysis. Also, the frequency of diarrhea and dehydration were observed during the critical period in multiply births under the natural suckling system. The TEM study revealed that the ALg-propolis NPs are discrete and have spherical shapes with average particle size of 24 ± 17 nm. It was observed that, the groups treated with propolis and nano-propolis with and without colostrum accelerated the weaning period. Also it is interesting to find that the groups treated with Alg-propolis NPs without colostrum have a higher body weight than the groups treated with propolis alone (10.70 ± 0.90 and 10.03 ± 0.89 kg respectively) even though with its low dose. Moreover, the ALg-propolis NPs decreased the frequency of diarrhea during the 15 days of life as compared to pure propolis (0.27 ± 0.14 and 0.40 ± 0.19) respectively. Additionally, the milk consumption was slightly reduced with the nano formulation. Also, the results indicated that the blood parameters such as (RBCs, total protein, albumin, and globulin) were slightly increased with both Propolis and nano-propolis without statistical significance (P<0.05). Hence, these results indicated that the nano-encapsulation of Propolis within Alg NPs improved the health status of kids even with its low dose. Therefore, the results obtained suggest the feasibility of developing a successful propolis oral delivery nanosystem on an industrial scale using the ALg NPs. Moreover, they were recommended to be used as a replacement of colostrum to improve the performance of newborn kids.

Keywords | Suckling goat, Propolis, Alginate, Nano-propolis, Diarrhea