Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 8(s2): 82-97
Http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.aavs/2020/8.s2.82.97
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Wafaa A. Abd El-Ghany*

Poultry Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 12211 Giza, Egypt.

Abstract | Avian chlamydiosis is a respiratory disease affecting all types of birds and mammals. It is a disease of public health importance as it severely affects human being. The disease is mainly caused by Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) which is obligatory intracellular Gram-negative bacterium. Other species of Chlamydia like C. gallinacea and C. avium have been recorded. All avian species including psittacine, domestic and wild birds are susceptible to infection with C. psittaci. Infection is usually occur through inhalation or ingestion of infected droplets or direct contact with infected or carrier birds. Avian chalmydiosis in psittacine birds or human is called psittacosis or parrot fever while in commercial domestic poultry is known as ornithosis. The clinical picture of C. Psittaciin birds is mainly respiratory and/or enteric and sometimes nervous. Infection of human with C. Psittaci is usually acquired from direct contact with infected living birds or carcasses. The disease in human starts as fever and headache, changes to cough difficult respiration and may death. Diagnosis of the disease in birds is based on the clinical picture as well as detection of the causative agent. Isolation, identification as well as serological monitoring of Chlamydia species are crucial for the disease diagnosis. Controlling of avian chlamydiosis depends on specific treatment of the infected birds using teteracyclines for long time. There is no available vaccine to Chlamydia species in birds till now. Quarantine and testing of imported pet birds are the must for prevention of avian chlamydiosis. From the all mentioned above, this review article gives an overview on avian chlamydiosis considering the incidence especially in Egypt and some Middle East countries, causative agent, susceptibility, infection and transmission, the clinical picture in birds and human, diagnosis as well as prevention and control.

Keywords | Chlamydia, Birds, Psittacosis, Zoonosis, Human