Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 8(11): 1194-1202
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Ihsanullah Shirani1, 2, 3*, Marawan A. Marawan1,2,4, Najibullah Rahimi3, Ali Dawood1,2,5

1The State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology; Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China; 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China; 3Para clinic Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nangarhar University, Nangarhar, Afghanistan; 4Infectious diseases, Animal Medicine Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Qualyobia, Egypt; 5Infectious diseases, Medicine Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Egypt.

Abstract | Clostridium difficile is an important emerging infectious agent and might colonize in digestive tract of humans. C. difficile exhibits a low level of gene conservation. Consequently, antibiotic therapy result has demonstrated in 15-30% cases. In the current review we summarized up to date information about the drug resistance genotypes of C. difficile for the first time. Our study revealed that there was a steady difference among various genotype. Which demonstrated that mutations in the DNA genes was very common in the antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Together our data revealed that antibiotic resistivity poses selective pressure on the genome of C. difficile that could lead to more adoptable drug resistance strains. This study may open a new avenue for the research in understanding the mechanism of C. difficile adaptation to antibiotics and the development of new antibacterial. However, their further research is needed to exploring C. difficile genomic diversity changed from molecular typing assays to total-genome sequence comparisons and comparative genome microarrays.

Keywords | Clostridium difficile, Ribotypes, Whole genomic analysis, BLAST, Genome