Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 8(10): 1100-1108
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Hassan Mohamed Hassan1, Abdirahman Bare Dubad2*, Muscub Mohamed Muse3, Abdulkadir Mumin Ali3, Burhan Said Ali3

1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Somali National University, Somalia; 2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Somali National University, Somalia; 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Somali National University, Somalia.

Abstract | Reproductive performance is one of the most important economic traits in beef or dairy production. The majority (60%) of Somalis are pastoral nomads and engage livestock production for livelihood, employment and income. Recurrent droughts and diseases are discouraging the pastoral production systems and forcing some pastoralists and diaspora to adopt small scale dairy production. Measuring the reproductive efficiency of dairy production in Somalia is paramount and deemed necessary. Therefore, an assessment was launched to assess factors that affect reproductive performance and understand the breeding regularity of local cattle breeds in Benadir region. This study was cross sectional and took place from Feb. 2018 to Feb. 2019. The study used both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. A total of 100 respondents were interviewed to collect qualitative data while a total of 2916 cattle were examined to gather quantitative data. The overall estimated means for age at puberty (AP), age at first calving (AFC) and calving interval (CI) was: 37.9 months, 49.2 months, and 19.15 months respectively. The percentage of cows weaned live calf was 57.6%. The average milk yield of local breeds is estimated to be 8 liters per day with average lactation period of 7.7 months. In calves, the average birth weight, weaning weight, maturity weight was 15.22 kg, 156.3 kg, and 310.28 kg respectively. The fertility rate was also measured and it was found that the average conception rate to be 18%, a general fertility of 53.85% , a dystocia rate of 5.6%. Heredity, nutritional stress and diseases appeared to be the main problems causing low reproductive efficiency in the study area. Other challenges in cattle production in the area were low inputs and poor facilities. Therefore, it is recommendable that short trainings and appropriate technology transfer in delivering animal husbandry practice and basic veterinary services to small holder farmers in Benadir region.

Keywords | Dairy, Maturity, Fertility, Herd composition, Wieght