Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 2 (1S): 1 - 12. Special Issue-1 (Infectious Diseases of Animals and Global Health)
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Shoor Vir Singh1*, Jagdip Singh Sohal1, Naveen Kumar1, Saurabh Gupta1, Kundan Kumar Chaubey1, Krishna Dutta Rawat1, Sandip Chakraborty2, Ruchi Tiwari3, Kuldeep Dhama4
1Division of Animal Health, Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Farah, Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) – 281 122; 2Veterinary Officer, Animal Resources Development Department, Pt. Nehru Complex, Agartala – 799006; 3Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwa Vidyalaya Evum Go–Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) – 281001; 4Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh) – 243122, India
*Corresponding author:;

In ruminants, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic persistent infection in intestine and is also known as paratuberculosis/ Johne’s disease (JD). It is increasingly being recognized as a problem that adversely affects animal health leading to significant economic losses to livestock industry. Recent emerging evidences have established a link between MAP and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)/ Crohn’s disease (CD) suggesting its zoonotic importance. There are a range of tests (conventional, serological and molecular) to diagnose MAP infected animals / individuals and/or herds/flocks. However, sensitivity and specificity of these tests vary according to stage of the disease. The correct choice and application of each of these diagnostic tests depends on need and may allow establishing a control program. Many steps have been undertaken to control and eradicate the disease. However, no significant success have been achieved till date by controlling infection through hygienic management as well as culling of infected animals thereby increasing the necessity of vaccination. As MAP cannot be killed by pasteurization, both raw and pasteurized milk are considered as a vehicle of transmission of this bacterium to humans. Present paper comprehensively reviews the diagnostic and control strategies for infections due to mycobacteria specially giving importance to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

Key Words: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, MAP, Johne’s disease, Diagnosis, Vaccine, Management, Control