Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 7(s2): 86-95
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Khalifa El-Dawy1, Ashraf S. Abdel Fattah2, Sara A. Elhefnawy1, Ahmed Hamed Arisha3*

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig, Egypt; 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; 3Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig, Egypt.

Abstract | Both the central and peripheral regulation of energy balance involves several complex processes where most of which remain unexplored. The main objective of this study was to explore the potential molecular implication of several transporters and the enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), electron transport chain (ETC) and de novo glycine biosynthesis in the hypothalamus, liver and kidney along with, in particularly, the expression analysis of the mitochondrial citrate carrier 1 and 2 (CIC1 and CIC2), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH 1 and IDH 2), cytochrome C oxidase (Cyt-C or complex IV) and serine hydroxymethyl transferase (GlyA or SHMT) in high fat high sugar (HFHS)-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) in male Sprague dawely rats. Moreover, the metabolic effects of the oral administration of gum arabic (GA) and/or the hypoglycemic drug (dapagliflozin) were studied. Fifty rats were randomly divided into 5 groups; control group, HFHS-induced MetS group and HFHS-induced MetS-supplemented with either gum arabic (500mg/kg) and/or administered with dapagliflozin (1mg/kg). Furthermore, studying the gene expression pattern of the hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthesis (FAS) involved in the central regulation of energy 16 balance, in such experimental models. Our results showed significant up-regulation in the hypothalamic mRNA expression of AMPK while ACC and FAS expression were down-regulated in the HFHS- induced MS compared to the control group. Furthermore, a marked difference was observed in the rate of expression of the CIC1, CIC2, IDH1, IDH2, Cyt-C and GlyA expression level in the hypothalamic, hepatic and renal tissues of HFHS- induced MetS. Oral supplementation of GA and/or treatment with dapagliflozin reverted most of these changes while the combination group had the most evident effect. In conclusion, molecular targets such as studied herein could provide a valid therapeutic potential and explain the mechanisms of the energy imbalance accompanied by MetS/ diabetes dilemma.

Keywords | CIC, IDH, GlyA, Cyt-C, Metabolic syndrome (MetS)