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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci.1 (4S): 5 - 13. Special Issue-4 (Progress in Research on Viruses and Viral Diseases)
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Jag Mohan Kataria1*, Kuldeep Dhama2, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan3, Sandip Chakraborty4, Anmol Kaushal1, Rajib Deb5
1Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar (U.P.); 2Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (U.P.); 3High Security Animal Diseases Laboratory, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bhopal Campus, Bhopal (M.P.); 4Animal Resources Development Department, Pt. Nehru Complex, Agartala, Pin – 799006; 5Division of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Project Directorate on Cattle, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Grass Farm Road, Meerut (U.P.), India
*Corresponding author:

Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) (also known as Angara disease and Litchi heart disease) is an emerging disease of poultry caused by fowl adenovirus. The disease affects birds between 3–6 weeks of age and is economically important due to significantly high/spiking mortality in young broiler birds that may reach up to 50%. The disease can spread both vertically and horizontally/laterally and has been reported in most of the Asian countries including India, Central and South American countries, Russia and Europe. Concurrent infection with chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) viruses aggravates the disease. Clinically, the HPS is characterized by typical hydropericardium, anemia and necrotic hepatitis. The pathological changes may be observed in vital visceral organs viz. liver, kidneys and heart along with characteristic excessive acquisition of fluid in pericardial sac giving it a shape of litchi fruit. Histopathologically, hepatocytes contain intranuclear inclusion bodies that are basophilic in nature. Immunosuppression is mainly due to depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and thymus. Clinical pathology includes decrease in blood cell counts and drastic variation in the serum biochemical profiles. Besides isolation of the virus in SPF egg and cell culture, serological tests like AGID, CIE, ELISA, SNT, HI, molecular techniques like PCR, PCR–RE digestion, real–time PCR and others are used for diagnostic purposes. Sequencing of the short fiber gene can differentiate various serotypes of the fowl adenovirus. Biosecurity at farms may act as an important control measure. Several vaccines have been used for the control of disease, but in India, inactivated oil emulsified vaccine is used in some farms. Even though the disease is an emerging threat to the poultry industry, controlling the disease should not be as challenging due to the availability of rapid diagnostics along with improved vaccines.

Key Words: Hydropericardium syndrome, fowl adenovirus, Epidemiology, Poultry, Diagnosis, Vaccine, Prevention, Control