Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 8(1): 67-76
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Mervat Hassan1, Nani Nasreldin2, Marwa El-Zeftawy3,4*

1Theriogenology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, The New Valley University, New Valley, Egypt; 2Pathology and Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, The New Valley University, New Valley, Egypt; 3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, The New Valley University, New Valley, Egypt;
4Biological Screening and Preclinical Trial Lab, Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Abstract | Retained placenta (RP) is one of the reproductive syndromes that occurs in dairy buffaloes where fetal membranes fail to be expelled during 12-hours following parturition. RP cause several economic losses as a result of reduced milk production and infertility resulting prolonged calving interval in affected animals. The purpose of this research was to investigate some proteins alterations at molecular level in relation to metabolic, oxidative, hormonal and immunological changes in Egyptian buffaloes exposed to RP compared to others without RP and non-calved ones. Vaginal examination and rectal palpation were performed to inspect any abnormalities. Blood glucose (BG), lipid and protein profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea and creatinine levels were estimated by biochemical techniques. Some macro and micro-minerals concentration were also analyzed. The antioxidant defense system was studied via measuring nitric oxide (NO), malonaldehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Further, progesteron (P4) and 17β-estradiol (E2) concentration were explored. Different protein amount percentage was determined using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. As well as, gene expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was evaluated. In RP group, the obtained data exhibited reduction of BG and lipid profile with exception of very low density lipoprotein. Likewise, alterations of protein were noticed including elevation of globulin and diminishing of albumin. Pro-oxidant parameters (MDA and NO) were elevated; whereas, antioxidant factors (TAC, GSH and SOD) were declined. Moreover, urea concentration, ALT and AST activities were significantly increased, while there wasn’t change in creatinine level. At hormonal level, a reduction of E2 and elevation of P4 were noticed and the gene expression of both IL-1β and IL-6 was declined. From the obtained results we can conclude that RP accompanied by low immunity and oxidative stress which directly affect metabolic and hormonal conditions of the animals and it influences proteins amount in the body which is responsible for the body defense.

Keywords | Retained placenta, Egyptian buffaloes, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Cytokines.