Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 8(1): 1-10
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Saadoon Abdul-Satar Salim1, Al-Obaidi Qaes Talb2*, Albaroodi Safwan Yousif3, Hasan Sadam Daher2

1Department of animal production, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq; 2Department of Internal and preventive medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq; 3Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.

Abstract | The objectives of the present research are to evaluate the prevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle employing competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique), to identify FMDV genotypes and to investigate some epidemiological risk factors related to the disease prevalence. A total of 460 saliva swabs and blood samples were collected from cattle of different ages and sexes in Nineveh province, Iraq. Epidemiological data were collected through interviews with the farmer s’ employer. Viral RNA was extracted from saliva, and RT-PCR was conducted to identify the virus genotypes based on VP1 and VP3 genes amplification. The overall occurrence of FMD in Nineveh province based on c-ELISA test and RT-PCR was 46.95% and 40.43%, respectively. According to Kappa value (0.81), it has a mean that is of higher compatibility between c-ELISA test and RT-PCR for diagnosis of FMDV in cattle. The risk factors that are significantly associated with higher prevalence of FMD including: Feedlot calves >6 months – 2 years old, females, pregnant animals, imported animals, indoor feeding, large herd size, beef purpose, non-vaccinated, in north-eastern parts of the province and in spring and winter months. Four genotypes of FMDV (A, O, Asia1 and SAT) were detected in Nineveh province at (12.39%, 6.95%, 17.39% and 3.69%) respectively. Genotype C was not detected in this research. In conclusion, our results reported the first time detection of four FMDV genotypes in Nineveh province and there are several risk factors linked to the disease occurrence, which require strict control measures.

Keywords | FMD, Prevalence, Risk factors, c-ELISA, RT-PCR.