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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 2 (1): 8 - 14
http://dx.doi.org/10.14737/journal.aavs/2014.2.1.8.14
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Tapas Kumar Goswami1*, Dhirendar Kumar Singh2, Mani Saminathan3, Amit Kumar Verma4, Kuldeep Dhama3
1Immunology Section; 2Division of Veterinary Public Health; 3Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute; Izatnagar, Bareilly (U.P.)– 243122, India; 4Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwa Vidyalaya Evum Go–Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura (U.P.) – 281001, India
*Corresponding author: goswami.tapas@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In poor–resource countries, most of the population depends on primary health centers, which are run by public sector. Recently, emerging and re–emerging diseases cause a great threat to human as well as animals. One of such diseases is the Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), which is affecting few human beings (with ensuing death) in the Gujarat state and is considered an additional challenge before the medicos. The disease is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in most parts of the world, and is caused by genus Nairovirus of Bunyaviridae family. Ticks either of genus Ixodid or Argasid can transmit this virus. Humans become infected either due to tick bite or by contact with blood or other fluids of body of another infected human being. The persons like veterinarians, animal health professionals, medicos and paramedical staff, livestock and agriculture industry workers are at risk to this infection. For diagnosis of the disease, virus isolation, enzyme–linked immunoassay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) are the most common and specific assays. The mainstay is intensive monitoring and supportive treatment. Ribavirin is found to be effective but it is controversial. In the absence of any effective vaccine, the effective preventive and control measures are control of vector (tick) population, hygienic measures, and awareness among health professionals. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge on the disease in terms of etiology, public health concern, vectors involved in transmission, pathology and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control.

Key Words: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, CCHFV, Public health, Emerging disease, Tick