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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 7(12): 1083-1092
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Walid H. Hassan1, Ahmed E. Abdel-Ghany2, Samia I. Afifi3, Safaa H. Sedik4*

1Bacteriology, Mycology, and Immunology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt; 2Hygiene, Zoonoses and Epidemiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt; 3Bacteriology Research Unit, Animal Health Research Institute, P.O. Box 264, Dokki, Gizza 12618, Egypt; 4Animal Health Research Institute, Beni-Suef Branch, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

Abstract | Campylobacter food poisoning is underestimated in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecularly characterize Campylobacter spp. in cattle, sheep and poultry investigated in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. Additionally, the MICs of some selected herbal oils on the isolated strains were studied. A total of 190 rectal swabs from cattle (n=85) and sheep (n=105) in addition to 200 samples from chickens (70 intestinal content and 130 cloacal swabs) were collected in the period October 2016 through January 2017. Bacteriological examination revealed that 37 (43.52%) out of 85 rectal samples obtained from cattle, as well as 37 out of 105 sheep samples (35.24%) harbored Campylobacter spp. In addition, 146 (73%) out of 200 examined chicken samples were bacteriologically positive. Analysis of the identified Campylobacter spp. revealed that the C. coli was more prevalent in cattle and sheep than C. jejuni (13.5 and 21.6%, respectively). In chickens, results showed also that C. coli was found in 15% of the tested samples, while C. jejuni failed detection. The results showed high prevalence rates of virulence genes in tested strains. The flaA gene as a Campylobacter pathogenic marker was detected in (100%) of analyzed strains. The Cdt toxin three subunits: CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC were also detected in all tested strains. Twenty highly virulent Campylobacter strains (14 C. coli and 6 C. jejuni) were exposed to herbal oils in order to determine the MIC. The results showed that MIC values of selected herbal oils against Campylobacter spp. were 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 µg|ml for eugenol, cinnamon, allicin, and thyme, respectively. The studied essential oils appeared to be effective against the highly virulent local Campylobacter strains at low bactericidal concentrations, thus, emphasizing the significance of these oils as natural antimicrobial agents.

Keywords | Campylobacter spp., Virulence factors, Livestock, Poultry, Herbal oils