Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 7(6): 484-491
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Noor Abdulhaleem1, Bashiru Garba2*, Hind Younis1, Aliyu Mahmuda3, Rukman Awang Hamat4, Roslaini Bin Abd. Majid4, Leslie Than Thian Lung4, Ngah Zasmy Unyah4, Abdul Sattar5, Bashir Saidu6

1Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Anbar, Iraq; 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. Nigeria ; 3Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 4Faculty Of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 5Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 6Department of Veterinary Physiology & Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. Nigeria.

Abstract | Salmonellosis is reported as one of the main cause of diarrhoeal diseases globally. The disease is also associated with enteric fever, including typhoid which is a potentially fatal systemic illness bedeviling many developing countries. The disease is estimated to affect nearly 17 million people with over 150,000 deaths occurring annually. Salmonellosis is also beginning to emerge as a foodborne infection characterized by significant economic and public health hazard with global ramifications. High prevalence of the disease is directly related to poor sanitation and hygiene, consumption and use of unsafe water, overcrowding and social unrest. A significant number of Iraqis are affected annually with a death rate of 10-20 %, mainly resulting from limited access to fresh water and improper sewage disposal into the river bodies. This review provides an overview of Salmonella infection in human and animals, with emphasis on the economic and public health burden of the disease in Iraq.

Keywords | Salmonellosis, Foodborne pathogen, Iraq, Diarrhoea, Economic importance, Prevalence