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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 7(4): 321-325
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Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse1,3,4*, Hanim Nur Abdul Mubin1, Idris Umar Hambali1,5, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila2, Eric Lim Teik Chung3, Yusuf Abba6, Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus8, Innocent Damudu Peter1,7,  Mohd Jefri Norsidin1


1Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 2Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 3Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security (ITAFoS), Universiti Putra Malaysial; 4University Community Transformation Centre (UCTC), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor; 5Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria; 6Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri; 7Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria; 8Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Abstract | Respiratory system disease is one of the most common problems of ruminants worldwide and has been classified as one of the costliest diseases. Diseases involving respiratory system in small and large ruminants can be caused by virus, bacteria and fungi. These disorders may lead to reductions in both production and economic gains. The most important diagnostic tool in diagnosing respiratory diseases is through general evaluation of the patient and the herd history. The common clinical signs and responses of animals infected with respiratory diseases are presence fever (pyrexia), loss of appetite, nasal discharge (serous or mucoid), coughing, sneezing, showing signs of difficulty in breathing (dyspnea), and abnormal lung sound upon auscultation where this will allow to score the different severity status of pneumonia. Lung auscultation scoring is essential in diagnosing respiratory disease and is a systematic approach method that could be adopted to detect, identify and differentiate the degree of severity in ruminant pneumonia cases that will aid in clinical management of the disease during drafting the treatment plan or therapeutic regime. There is a limited review on clinical management of respiratory diseases involving ruminants. Hence, this review aims at focusing on the clinical management of common respiratory diseases involving ruminants. Therefore, this review may enlighten the field veterinarians on the common respiratory diseases of small and large ruminants and its clinical management.

Keywords | Clinical Management, Respiratory, System, Clinical, Diseases, Condition, Ruminants.