Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 7(3): 157-163
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Anuraga Jayanegara1*, Nabila F. Ardhisty1, Sari P. Dewi1, Antonius2, Roni Ridwan3, Erika B. Laconi1, Nahrowi1, Muhammad Ridla1

1Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680; 2Goat Research Station, Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, PO BOX 1, Galang, Sei Putih 20585;3Biotechnology Research Center, Indonesian Academy of Sciences, Jl. Raya Bogor Km 46, Cibinong, Bogor 16911, Indonesia.

Abstract | This experiment aimed to enhance nutritional quality of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by combining urea treatment and high temperature and pressure (135oC, 2.3 atm) using fiber cracking technology (FCT). The OPEFB was subjected to the following treatments: T1 (untreated OPEFB), T2 (OPEFB + FCT), T3 (OPEFB + 1% urea + FCT), T4 (OPEFB + 2% urea + FCT), T5 (OPEFB + 3% urea + FCT), T6 (OPEFB + 4% urea + FCT) and T7 (OPEFB + 5% urea + FCT), each in four replicates. Samples were determined for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and lignin contents, and were incubated in vitro with rumen fluid and buffer mixture. Results showed that treatment using FCT (T2) decreased NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin contents of OPEFB. Combination between FCT and 1-5% urea (T3-T7) further decreased the fiber fractions, and addition 5% urea + FCT (T7) resulted in the lowest NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin contents of OPEFB. Such fiber decrease of OPEFB due to FCT and urea was accompanied with significant increase of in vitro total gas production, gas production rate, total volatile fatty acid, ammonia, in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility as compared to control (P<0.05). However, methane emission was unaltered by FCT and/or urea treatments.

Keywords | Fiber cracking, Urea treatment, Oil palm, By-product, In vitro rumen.