Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 6(10): 413-426
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Lawan Adamu1, 6,*, Jesse Faez Firdaus Abdullah1, 2, Bala Jamilu Abubakar4, 10 ,Idris Umar Hambali1,5, Odhah Mohammed Naji1, 3, Arsalan Maqbool7, 8, Muhammad Naveed Ali7, Bhutto Khaleeq ur Rehman1, 9, Abraham Gabriel Abdullah1, 2, Wahid Abd Haron1, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila4, Mohd Zamri Saad4

1Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Farm & Exotic Animals Medicine & Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Thamar University, Yemen; 4Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 5Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria; 6Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria; 7Institute of Tropical Agriculture and food security, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 8Livestock and Dairy development Department Baluchistan, Pakistan; 9Veterinary Research & Diagnosis, Livestock and Fisheries Department Sindh, Pakistan; 10Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria.

Abstract | Staphylococcus aureus is the most important human and animal pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of morbidity and acute clinical infections, in addition to tenacious chronic forms of diseases. The pathogen sophisticated virulence, and its abilities to abate or elude the host immune responses by the myriad of processes makes it the most dreaded organisms, both in the communities, hospital setups and the dairy industries worldwide. S. aureus vaccines have revealed a significant challenge because of plentiful virulence physiognomies. For these reasons, numerous protein particles and several potent transporters of these proteins called adjuvants were proposed as ideal vaccines contrivances for the prevention of Staphylococcus aureus infections. Furthermore, for the formulation of these vaccine contraptions nascent technologies which include the Bioinformatics, Proteomics, Metagenomics, Metabolomics, Transcriptomics and Nanotechnology and its ability in the deliverance of vaccines in research are similarly advocated, an intact procedure employed for the evaluation of the vast proteins and genes that were disclosed by a microorganism is currently available. Likewise, existing are marvellous expectation in these burgeoning expertise in understanding the microbial and host affiliations. In view of this, the blossoming facts may perhaps tremendously assure to the headway of immunogenic vaccines as anti-Staphylococcus aureus contagions in both hominids and animals. This periodical highlights and explicates on the up-to-date eminence of mucosal and systemic immune responses by the application of Transcriptomics, Metabolomics, Metagenomics, Proteomics and Nanotechnology techniques for their prominence in the evaluation of refined proteins for use as systemic and mucosal immunogenic vaccines for forefending of Staphylococcus aureus contagions in goats, sheep and cattle.    
Keywords: Mucosal, Systemic, Immune responses, Staphylococcus aureus, Ruminants