Research Journal for Veterinary Practitioners

Research Article
Res. j. vet. pract. 3 (1): 1 - 9
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Samir Souames1, Christian Hanzen2, Johann Detilleux3, Rachid Kaidi4
1Laboratory of animal health and production, Superior National Veterinary School, BP 161, Algiers, Algeria; 2Department of Theriogenology of animal production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, B-4000 Belgium; 3Department of Quantitative genetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université of Liège, B-4000 Belgium; 4Laboratory of biotechnology related to animal reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Saad Dahleb,
09000, Blida, Algeria.

*Correspondence | Samir Souames, Superior National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria; Email:

A survey was conducted to describe the different practices of artificial insemination (AI). A total of 223 (55%) Algerian inseminators were surveyed. The questionnaire was divided into 4 groups: the first group involved general data about the inseminator (years of experience, number of AI performed yearly, % of AI achieved during natural heat, % of breeders who use AI); the second group focused on various practices employed before AI (confirmation of estrus, assessment of body condition); the third group examined practices applied during AI (thawing and semen deposition); the fourth and last group reviewed practices used after AI (monitoring the return to estrus and pregnancy diagnosis). One in two inseminators had more than five years of experience and 71% had achieved more than 200 annual AI which were influenced by the inseminator’s years of experience (p<0.001). Sixty nine percent had achieved more than half of AI during natural heat 12 hours after the onset of the oestrus. Before thawing of semen, 43% had palpated the uterine tone and follicle, 65% had reported that less than 11% of females were not in heat. Thawing semen in warm-water (35-38°C) for 40 seconds is the most commonly used practice. Before AI, only 36% used a protective plastic sheaths. Essentially the semen is deposited in the uterine body. Once the insemination gun has been removed, inseminators were more likely to massage the uterus than to stimulate the clitoris (91 vs. 19%). In the case of non-return to heat, 53% have diagnosed pregnancy through manual palpation rather than ultrasonography (73 vs. 27%). The frequency of pregnancy diagnosis was influenced by the number of breeders who practice AI (p<0.05), but not by the number of annual AI. The practice of AI was reported by the majority of respondents. Correct insemination practices will result in better fertility. Further training is required for the inseminators, if we want to use AI successfully to maintain a sustainable dairy industry in the future.

Keywords | Cattle, Artificial insemination, Practices, Fertility, Algeria