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Research Journal for Veterinary Practitioners

Review Article
Res. j. vet. pract. 1(1): 5 - 9
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Riasat Wasee Ullah1,3, Jafir Hussain Shirazi1, Muhammad Abubakar2, Aamer Bin Zahur3, Asma Latif3, Tahseen Alam1

1Department of Microbiology, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan; 2National Veterinary Laboratories, Park Road Islamabad, Pakistan; 3Animal Health Program, Animal Science Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: riasatwasee252@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Brucella is one of the world major Zoonotic pathogen which is responsible for great economic losses and causes human morbidity. Especially in those countries which are based on agricultural and livestock where spread of this pathogen is very easy to human beings. The main objective of this review is to emphasis on new molecular techniques and genetic diversity of Brucella species which can be used to understand the pathogenicity and virulence of this pathogen and about “One Health” initiative umbrella where respective countries may plan to address zoonotic diseases like brucellosis which causes severe losses in livestock and public health economy. Out of ten species of Brucella five species are of zoonotic concern. The most pathogenic species for human is B. melitensis, B. melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis which are also potential bio-weapons. Transmission from person-to-person is rare, so infection is not spread from infected persons. Consequently, control and eradication of the brucellosis from the natural animal reservoirs leads to decrease in the incidence of human infection. It is evident that regardless of pathogenicity of the different species of the Brucella, the genus has genetic similarities with in species. There is high level of nucleotide similarities between Brucella species, but vary in host tropism and pathogenicity. “One Health” initiative is a new concept for the control of emerging zoonotic diseases. In which the professionals from different professions like Veterinary profession, Medical Profession, Wild life and social communities work together for one purpose. Especially in developing countries where test and slaughter method cannot be implemented for the control and eradication of animal diseases. One Health Initiative should be started by these countries to control and eradicate the zoonotic diseases and ultimately wellbeing of humanity.

Key Words: Brucellosis, Genetic diversity, One health initiative