Research Journal for Veterinary Practitioners

Research Article
Res. j. vet. pract. 2 (4): 58 - 62
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Munuswamy Palanivelu*, Shambhu Dayal Singh, Mariappan Asok Kumar, Rajamani Barathidasan, Berin P. Varghese, Shyama N. Prabhu, Kuldeep Dhama
Avian Diseases Section, Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, (Uttar Pradesh) – 243 122, India
*Corresponding author:

The present study describes disease investigation of outbreaks of hepatitis–hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) in three different commercial broiler flocks each with a flock size of 5000, 10000, and 20000 birds respectively, of different age groups ranging from 3 to 5 weeks in western Uttar Pradesh and Srinagar region of India. Representative broiler birds (n= 15) from these flocks were brought for postmortem investigation and diagnosis. History obtained from the flock owners revealed a large number of clinically sick birds and varying mortality rates (10–15% (10% in one farm and 15% in two farms). In all the three flock in spite of routine vaccination against major viral diseases (Marek’s disease and infectious bursal diseases). Necropsy examination of the dead and sacrificed birds showed enlarged, pale, friable liver; swollen kidneys with alternating areas of pale and hemorrhagic parenchyma; and varying degrees of hydropericardium. Representative tissue samples of liver, spleen and kidney were collected for histopathology and molecular detection of the HPS causative virus. Histopathologically, there were varying degrees of hepatitis, nephrosis to nephritis, hemorrhages in hepatic and renal parenchyma. Moderate number of hepatocytes showed the presence of large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of the clinical tissue samples, using Hexon protein gene specific primers, yielded virus specific amplicon of 897 bp size confirming the presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV). The recurrent outbreaks of infectious hepatitis – hydropericardium syndrome in broiler industry in different parts of India need to be investigated further to assess the economic losses due to this disease as well as to adapt suitable prevention and control measures.

Key Words: Fowl adenovirus, Hydropericardium syndrome, Broiler chickens, Disease outbreak, Histopathology, PCR