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RJVP_7_3_58-62

 

 

Research Article

 

Observational Study on Clinical Diseases and Disorders in Cattle Recorded Through One Year at Dakshin Surma Upazilla Under Sylhet District of Bangladesh

 

Obaidul Islam*, Md Mukter Hossain, Shameema Khatun, Mustasim Famous, Mohammad Misbah Uddin

Faculty of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100.

 

Abstract | The research was performed to determine the diseases and disorders of cattle and to identify the associated risk factors in Dakshin Surma under Sylhet district. A total of 1000 clinical cases were diagnosed at Upazilla Veterinary Hospital, Dakshin Surma during March 2018 to February 2019. Disease diagnosis was made on the basis of owners’ statement, general examination, clinical signs, gross pathology and laboratory procedures. Data was analyzed to determine disease prevalence in cattle with respect to breed, sex and season. Diagnosed diseases were categorized as bacterial, viral, protozoan and other diseases. According to the results, the prevalence of bacterial diseases were highest (36.4%) followed by the viral diseases (24.4%), protozoan diseases (18.9%), and other diseases (20.03%). Female were more susceptible to diseases (52.9%) than male cattle (47.1%). Disease prevalence varied according to seasons. Highest prevalence was recorded in rainy season (27.6%) followed by autumn season (18.4%) and summer season (11.6%). Our large set of data on cattle disease prevalence provides valuable insight to design and implement priority based research on specific disease and to take efficient control strategies against the diseases.

 

Keywords | Dakshin Surma Upazilla, Bacterial diseases, Clinical case, Prevalence, Diseases

 

Received | July 11, 2019; Accepted | August 08, 2019; Published | August 26, 2019

*Correspondence | Obaidul Islam, Faculty of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100; Email: obaiduldvmsau20@gmail.com

Citation | Islam O, Hossain MM, Khatun S, Famous M, Uddin MM (2019). Observational study on clinical diseases and disorders in cattle recorded through one year at dakshin surma upazilla under sylhet district of bangladesh. Res J. Vet. Pract. 7(3): 58-62.

DOI | http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.rjvp2019/7.3.58.62

ISSN (Online) | 2307-8316; ISSN (Print) | 2309-3331

Copyright © 2019 Islam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Bangladesh is an over populated, rural and agrarian country in the world. Cattle are very important component of mixed farming system practiced in Bangladesh from long time. In Bangladesh, similar to high population density, livestock population is also high and near about 80% of population is employed in agriculture and livestock farming (BBS, 2008). Livestock is a vital component of rural economy in Bangladesh and is performing multifarious functions such as provision of food, draft power, transports etc. Bangladesh earns foreign currency by exporting several byproducts such as hides, skin, bone etc. Now-a-days biogas is also produce from cattle dung. The contribution of livestock in the magnitude of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is about 16.23 % in Bangladesh. There are about 22.53 million cattle and 14.69 million goat populations in Bangladesh (DLS, 2009).The management practices of animals and geo-climatic condition of Bangladesh are favorable for the occurrence of various diseases. However, most of the animals are weak and emaciated with non-satisfactory productive performance due to malnutrition and diseases. Among the various constrains the development of cattle, both infectious and non-infectious diseases are most important limiting factors that causes significant mortality of adult cattle and neonatal calves each year (Debnath et al., 1995). It was reported that variation in different cattle breed, their sex and environmental factors greatly influence the disease prevalence in livestock animals including cattle (Alim et al., 2011, Karim et al., 2014). The present study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of cattle diseases considering breed, sex and seasons at five different locations of Dakshin Surma Upazilla under sylhet district in Bangladesh. The results of the current study will provide an overall idea about the distribution of diseases of cattle in the region which may assist researchers or clinicians to design and implement priority based research on specific disease and to take efficient control strategies against the diseases. And also control by vaccination and farmer’s awareness, emphasis has increasingly shifted to economically important disease to the dairy products.

 

This report was collected from Upazilla Veterinary Hospital, Dakshin Surma, Sylhet. There was 7000 cattle population at Dakshin Surma (yearly report of Upazilla Veterinary Hospital, 2018). In every year, significant numbers of cattle are affected by several bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases. During this study period I observed near about 1000 cattle at Dakshin Surma Upazilla.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Study Area and Study Period

Data were collect from the clinical register book of one year at Upazilla Veterinary Hospital, Dakshin Surma, Sylhet during the period of March 2018 to February 2019. Total clinical cases were examined and diagnosed in the Upazilla Veterinary Hospital, Dakshin Surma, Sylhet during the study period. The year was divided into six seasons namely spring(Feb-Apr), summer(Apr-Jun),Rainy (Jun-Aug), autumn (Aug-Oct), Late autumn (Oct-Dec),Winter (Dec-Feb) and the animals were separated into different groups according to their breed and sex.

 

Statistical Analysis

All the data obtained from hospitals, were organized, structure and analyzed with the help of Microsoft Corporation, 2007 windows package. The obtained information was loaded and stored on to the excel spread sheet. The collected data are analysis through tabular and percentage.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

Prevalence of mastitis was 8.5% (Table 1) in the study in cows. The findings support the report of Sarker et al. (1999), Samad (2001) and Rahman et al. (2012) who reported clinical mastitis in 0.89%, 0.71% and 0.9% cows respectively. Nooruddin et al. (1986) also reported 0.3% and 0.65% clinical mastitis in cows.

 

I got 7.2% prevalence (Table 1) of calf scour of cattle in the study area. Most of the cows of Dakshin Surma region are local breeds that are reared in farmers homestead. After birth calf are reared on cow milk rather than milk supplement, which provide them sufficient maternal antibody to fight against diseases like calf scour. May be this is the reason of lower prevalence of this disease in Dakshin Surma.

Black quarter was diagnosed on the presence of pronounced swelling of the affected muscles of upper limb with gaseous crepitation. I found 11.2% prevalence (Table 1) of Blackquarter in cattle. These observations support the earlier findings of Rahman et al. (1972) and Samad (2001) who reported 0.31%,0.46% and Hoque and Samad (1996) reported 2.17% incidence of Black quarter in cattle from different geographical location of Bangladesh.

 

Table 1: Prevalence of bacterial diseases of cattle at Dakshin Surma Upazilla.

 

Name of the bacterial diseases Diseased

cattle (n=1000)

Prevalence

(%)

1.Mastitis 85 8.5
2.Tetanus 72 7.2
3.Black quarter 112 11.2
4. Calf scour 95

9.5

 

Table 2: Prevalence of viral diseases of cattle at Dakshin Surma Upazilla

 

Name of the viral diseases Diseased

cattle (n=1000)

Prevalence (%)
1.Foot and mouth disease 104 10.4
2.Bovine epimeral fever 80 8
3.Warts 60

6

 

Table 3: Prevalence of protozoan diseases of cattle at Dakshin Surma Upazilla

 

Name of the protozoan diseases Diseased

cattle (n=1000)

Prevalence (%)
1.Anaplasmosis(Rickettsia) 66 6.6
2.Babesiosis 75 7.5
3. Theileriasis 48

4.8

 

Table 4: Prevalence of ectoparasitic diseases of cattle at Dakshin Surma Upazilla

 

Name of the ectoparasitic diseases Diseases cattle (n=1000) Prevalence (%)
1.Tick infestation 115 11.5
2.Lice infestation 88 8.8

 

This study recorded 10.4% cases of (Table 2) Foot and Mouth Disease in cattle. May be due to intensive immunization through blanket vaccination with trivalent vaccine, the number of Foot and Mouth Disease cases have reduced slightly from previous. This finding support the finding of Samad (2001) and Rahman et al. (2012) reported 1.79% and 1.3% cases of Foot and Mouth Disease in cattle. Com

paratively higher prevalence rates of Foot and Mouth Disease in cattle have been reported by Rahman et al. (1972),

 

Table 5: Breed and sex-wise prevalence of diseases of cattle at Dakshin Surma Upazilla.

 

Name of Disease Breed No of Cases Prevalence (%) Sex No of Cases Prevalence (%)
Mastitis Local 23 2.3 Male 0 0
crossbreed 62 6.2 Female 85 8.5
Tetanus Local 40 4 Male 23 2.3
crossbreed 32 3.2 Female 49 4.9
Black quarter Local 80 8 Male 69 6.9
crossbreed 32 3.2 Female 43 4.3
Calf scour Local 40 4 Male 39 3.9
crossbreed 55 5.5 Female 58 5.8
Foot and mouth disease Local 62 6.2 Male 59 5.9
crossbreed 42 4.2 Female 43 4.3
Bovine epimeral fever Local 45 4.5 Male 48 4.8
crossbreed 35 3.5 Female 32 3.2
Warts Local 23 2.3 Male 31 3.1
crossbreed 37 3.7 Female 30 3

Anaplasmosis

(Rickettsia)

Local 42 4.2 Male 31 3.1
crossbreed 24 2.4 Female 35 3.5
Babesiosis Local 39 3.9 Male 45 4.5
crossbreed 36 3.6 Female 30 3
Theileriasis Local 23 2.3 Male 29 2.9
crossbreed 25 2.5 Female 19 1.9
Tick Infestation Local 67 6.7 Male 56 5.6
crossbreed 48 4.8 Female 59 5.9
Lice Infestation Local 40 4 Male 42 4.2
crossbreed 48 4.8 Female 46

4.6

 

Table 6: Season-wise prevalence of diseases of cattle at Dakshin Surma Upazilla.

 

Name of the diseases Spring Season

Preva

lence

%

Summer Season

Preva

lence

(%)

Rainy Season

Preva

lence

(%)

Autumn Season

Preva

lence

(%)

Late Autumn Season

Preva

lence

(%)

Winter Season

Preva

lence (%)

Mastitis 13 1.3 9 0.9 25 2.5 16 1.6 12 1.2 10 1
Tetanus 10 1 13 1.3 12 1.2 12 1.2 13 1.3 12 1.2
Black quarter 16 1.6 13 1.3 36 3.6 21 2.1 12 1.2 14 1.4
Calf scour 8 0.8 18 1.8 20 2 17 1.7 15 1.5 17 1.7
Foot and mouth disease 10 1 10 1 37 3.5 19 1.9 13 1.3 15 1.5
Bovine epimeralfever 13 1.3 14 1.4 9 0.9 14 1.4 18 1.8 12 1.2
Warts 5 0.5 7 0.7 8 0.8 12 1.2 16 1.6 12 1.2
Anaplasmosis (Rickettsia) 10 1 8 0.8 20 2 10 1 6 0.6 12 1.2
Babesiosis 3 0.3 1 0.1 27 2.7 15 1.5 10 1 19 1.9
Theileriasis 2 0.2 5 0.5 10 1 12 1.2 10 1 9

0.9

Tick infestation 22 2.2 11 1.1 40 4 15 1.5 12 1.2 15 1.5
Lice infestation 6 0.6 7 0.7 32 3.2 21 2.1 10 1 12 1.2
Total 118 11.8 116 11.6 276 27.6 184 18.4 147 14.7 159

15.9

 

Hoque and Samad (1996) and Sarkar et al. (2011) who reported 5.71%, 10.05%, 8.58% and 5.78% respectively.

 

Prevalence of Bovine epimeral Fever was 8% (Table 2) which was really high. The number of total cases of Bovine epimeral fever is doubtful since many of the cases are either go unnoticed or not reported due to short self-limiting course of this disease. Higher prevalence of Bovine Epimeral Fever in this area may be due to nature of disease spreading and open access of animals to contact with infected one during grazing.

 

This study recorded 6% prevalence (Table 2) of Warts in cattle. This findings support the reports of Samad (2001) and Rahman et al. (2012) reported and 0.7%, 0.58% and 0.19% prevalence of warts in cattle from Bangladesh respectively.

 

Prevalence of Babesiosis, Anaplasmosis, Theileriosis (Table 3) was medium. Weather condition of Dakshin Surma limits the chance tick infestation thus greatly reduce the occurrence of tick borne disease like babesiosis, anaplasmosis and theileriasis.

 

Prevalence of ectoparasitic diseases (Table 4) was high. Prevalence of tick and lice infestation were 11.5%, 8.8% in this study area. The prevalence of ectoparasite was relatively high in this area. Probable reason of this higher prevalence of ectoparasitic disease may be due to unhygienic condition of farm and improper practice of acaricide using in the farm.

 

Highest prevalence 52.9% recorded (Table 5) in female than male cattle which is 47.1%. So that female cattle are more susceptible to diseases than male cattle at Dakshin Surma Upazilla. This study also observed that local cattle of this area are more infected 52.4% than cross breed cattle 47.6%.

 

This study recorded 27.6% prevalence of diseases (Table 6) in rainy season which is highest and lowest prevalence recorded in summer season that is 11.6%.

 

CONCLUSION

 

Occurrence of diseases was recorded during clinical examination of sick cattle at Upazilla Veterinary Hospital, Dakshin Surma, Sylhet. This study was conducted to detect the present situation of occurrence of clinical diseases and disorders in the study area. From the study, it was observed that cattle were most susceptible to parasitic infestation. Parasitic infestation causes heavy economic losses in every year. So, regular anthelmintics treatment should be given to control the parasitic diseases, restriction of movement and frontier vaccination program must be undertaken in this area. And further research should be required to determine the accurate prevalence of diseases and disorders in cattle. Proper planning and program should be undertaken to prevent and control of the diseases and disorders of cattle in the study area. We have to be careful about our livestock population because our country is dependent on agriculture and livestock. And we are the veterinarian have to be more conscious about diagnosis of diseases and more practices about treatment.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

The authors express their deep sense of gratitude to Upazilla Livestock Officer (ULO), Veterinary Surgeon (VS) and all the respondent staffs of Upazilla Veterinary Hospital, Dakshin Surma, Sylhet, Bangladesh who cooperated during the period of data collection.

 

Conflict of Interest

 

The author declare that no conflict of interest exists

 

Authors Contribution

 

It is clearly stated that all author has contributed significantly to the study.

 

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