Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 9(12): 2077-2083
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Mona MH Soliman1*, Eman Ragab2, Sally Ibrahim3, Youssef Ahmed3

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Doki, Egypt; 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Animal Reproduction and A.I, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.

Abstract | Endometritis is the principal reason of reduced reproductive efficiency in female horses. Bacteriological, mycological and cytological investigations are the backbone of detecting endometritis in mares. Interleukin-6, Prostaglandin E2 and Prostaglandin F2𝛼 are pro-inflammatory cytokines and their determination in serum of mares is important to predict early stages of endometritis to prevent its detrimental effect on fertility of mares. Low volume lavage (LVL) fluid was microbiologically examined (bacteria and fungi) together with cytological smears from endometrial swabs. Microbial growth on culture of the LVL pellet revealed that diseased mares had Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli (75%), Klebsiella spp. (40%), Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (60%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (55%). For mycological results; there were 25 (25%) diseased mares showed positive results for yeasts and moulds as 13 were positive for yeasts and 12 for moulds. Microbial examination together with cytological results revealed that endometritis was diagnosed in 80 out of 100 mares. Serum evaluation of IL6, PGE2 and PGF2𝛼 revealed their higher levels in diseased mares (83%) compared with control ones. In conclusion, microbiological examination of endometrial Low volume uterine lavage is of great importance to diagnose precisely the causative agent either bacteria or fungi. Microbiological together with cytological smears and clinical finding are crucial when evaluating mares. The IL6, PGE2 and PGF2𝛼 determination in serum can detect early stages of endometritis to quickly treat those cases.

Keywords | Bacteriology, Cytology, Mare endometritis, Mycology, Pro-inflammatory cytokines