Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 9(10): 1692-1704
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Eman E. El Shanawany*

Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, National Research Centre, El Bhooth St, Dokki, post pox 12622, Giza, Egypt.

Abstract | Platyhelminths (Flatworm: Neodermata) are a highly varied group of parasites containing several veterinary, biomedical and economic importance. Glycans of platyhelminths are expressed in a varity of carrier molecules including O- and N-linked glycoproteins and glycolipid structures. Their glycans exist in large quantities in the excretory/secretory products and on the parasites surface, these glycans play role in host-parasite interplay. Glycan portions of complex molecules of platyhelminths interact with antigen-presenting cells of the innate immune system, such as interact with specific receptors on dendritic cells leading to modulate host toward T helper 2 immune response for helping parasite survival. The immunomodulatory properties of platyhelminths glycans could be used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The adaptive immune response against them characterized by the production of IgG, IgE, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Anti-glycan antibodies are a common characteristic in platyhelminths infection, detection of these antibodies is widely used for serodiagnosis of platyhelminths infection. The Platyhelminthes glycoproteins and glycolipids are considered immunodiagnostic candidates for serodiagnosis of such infection in different farm animals. The specificity and sensitivity of diagnostic platyhelminths glycans are depending on the structural characterization of these glycans. Hence, the aim of this review will revolve around the application of these glycans for diagnosis of infectious diseases in farm animals. Understand their role in shaping and modulating innate and adaptive host immune responses. Immune modulation of host immune response by these glycans will make these molecules show promise in the fields of diagnosis, treatment of inflammatory and auto immune diseases, and vaccinology.

Keywords | Platyhelminthes, Glycans, Farm animals, Diagnosis, Immunomodulatory properties