Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 9(7): 1095-1112
Http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.aavs/2021/9.7.1095.1112
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Mercy C. Ogwuegbu1*, Augustine O. Ani1, Chika E. Oyeagu2, Charles O. Osita1, Uchenna Oyeagu3,4, Wilfred I. Ugwuoke5, Francis B. Lewu2

1Department of Animal Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria; 2Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Wellington Campus, Private Bag X8, Wellington 7654, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria; 4South East Zonal Biotechnology Center, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria; 5Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Enugu state, Nigeria.

Abstract | The gut histological traits, gut micro-flora and growth parameters of boiler birds fed different inclusion levels of sodium butyrate and rosemary leaf meal was investigated. A total of 320 one-day “Arbor acre strain” broiler chicks were allotted to 10 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 8 birds each. The treatments includes : T1 = Basal diet (BD: Negative control); T2 = BD + 1g/Kg diet of Oxytetracycline (positive control); T3 = BD+2g sodium butyrate (SB) /kg diet; T4 = BD+4g SB/Kg diet; T5 = BD + 2.5g rosemary leaf meal (RLM) /kg diet; T6 = BD +5.0g RLM/kg diet; T7 = BD +2g SB + 2.5g RLM/kg diet; T8 = BD + 2g SB +5.0g RLM/kg diet; T9 = BD + 4g SB + 2.5g RLM/kg diet; and T10 = BD + 4g SB + 5.0g RLM/kg diet. The results showed that birds fed T3, T4, and T5 had the highest (p<0.05) body weight with an improved feed conversion ratio in both trial phases (starter and finisher). During the starter phase, the highest (p<0.05) villus length, crypth depth, thickness of the epithelium, thickness of muscularis in duodenum, jejunum and ileum was recorded for birds fed T4. During the finisher phase, the villus length, crypt depth, thickness of epithelium and muscularis of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were higher (p<0.05) for birds fed 4g/kg sodium butyrate and 5g/kg rosemary leaf meal (except for crypth depth of jejunum and ileum). At the end of the starter phase, the data for the Lactobacillus counts of the ileum was highest (p<0.05) for birds fed dietary 4g/kg sodium butyrate and 5g/kg rosemary leaf meal, while, the Lactobacillus counts of the caecum was highest (p<0.05) for birds fed 4g/kg sodium butyrate, 2.5g/kg rosemary leaf meal and 5g/kg rosemary leaf meal. The highest (p<0.05) E.coli and Salmonella populations in both ileum and caecum during the starter phase was seen in birds fed the negative control diet. At the end of the finisher phase, the highest (p<0.05) proliferation of Lactobacillus in the ileum section of the gut was recorded for birds fed 2g/kg diet sodium butyrate, 4g/kg sodium butyrate, 2.5g/kg rosemary leaf meal, 5g/kg rosemary leaf meal and 4g/kg sodium butyrate +2.5g/kg rosemary leaf meal, while Lactobacillus counts in the caecum was highest (p<0.05) for birds fed 2g/kg diet sodium butyrate, 4g/kg sodium butyrate, 2.5g/kg rosemary leaf meal and 5g/kg rosemary leaf meal. The populations of Lactobacillus were lowest (p<0.05) in both ileum and caecum parts of the gut for birds fed negative control (T1) diet, while the E.coli and Salmonella counts in the caecum were highest (p<0.05) for birds fed the negative control (T1) diet compared with other dietary treatments. It was concluded that T4 and T6 had a better gut integrity and improved histological traits. Moreover, 2g/kg diet sodium butyrate, 4g/kg sodium butyrate or 2.5g/kg rosemary leaf meal can be used safely for a better performance as they enhanced the growth traits of the birds.

Keywords | Broilers, Gut histology, Micro-flora, Organic acids, Rosemary.