Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 9(7): 1045-1052
Http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.aavs/2021/9.7.1045.1052
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Ahmed G. Hegazi1, Nagwa I. Toaleb2*, Hassan A El Fadaly1, Eman H. Abdel-Rahman2, Barakat A.M. A1

1Department of Zoonotic Diseases, National Research Centre, El Buhouth St, Dokki, Giza; 2Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, National Research Centre, El Buhouth St, Dokki, Giza, postal code 12622, Egypt.

Abstract | Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite causes latent cysts in the brain; cysts may lead to fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Treatment in these cases remains unsuccessful. The present study aimed to assess the effect of propolis as safe apitherapy from nature product of bee compared with drugs Spiramycin and Sulphonamide in eradication of brain cysts and the in vivo reactivation in rats. One hundred forty Sprague-Dawley rats were included in our study; one hundred twenty rats infected orally with 25 brain cysts T. gondii, they divided to six groups and received different treatments for 21 days after 60 days of infection: group (1) infected untreated rats which received saline (n=20), group (2) infected rats treated with Spiramycin 50 mg/kg daily (n=20), group (3) infected rats (n=20) received Sulphonamide 50 mg/kg daily, group (4) infected rats treated with 0.1ml propolis 0.1ml daily (n=20), group (5) infected rats treated with both Spiramycin 50 mg/kg and 0.1ml propolis (n=20) daily, group (6) infected rats treated with both Sulphonamide 50 mg/kg of drug and 0.1ml of propolis daily (n= 20). Twenty healthy non-infected rats received saline only. After treatment, the brain cysts were counted after 7, 14 and 21 days. Propolis increased spiramycin activity, causing a significant highest reduction of T. gondii brain load bradyzoites 112.67 (31.74%) in the rats treated with drug Spiramycin and propolis together (group 5) at 21 days post treatment. While rats treated with propolis only recorded reduction in bradyzoites count 59.33 (16.71%). Rats treatment with Spiramycin plus propolis recorded significant increase in IgG level against T. gondii 21dpt (group 5). While in group (4) that treated with propolis only recorded significant the highest IgG level in infected rats. High decrease in cytokines levels IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-17 was recorded in rats treated with propolis extract only group (4), while group (5) tread with mix of propolis and Spiramycin recorded significant reduction in cytokines levels at 7, 14 and 21 dpt than the other groups. In conclusion; Spiramycin with propolis causing a significant reduction of T. gondii brain cysts, more than the other treatments with high potentials for chronic toxoplasmosis treatment.

Keywords | Propolis - Brain cysts toxoplasmosis - Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies IgG -Spiramycin - Sulphonamide - Cytokines