Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Research Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 9(6): 904-912
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Pavel Polkovnichenko1*, Vladimir Vorobiev2, Dmitryi Vorobiev1, Vladimir Safonov3

1Department of Veterinary and Sanitary Expertise of Animal Husbandry and Crop Production, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia; 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia; 3Laboratory of Environment Biogeochemistry, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow, Russia.

Abstract | This study presents the results of comprehensive diagnosis of combined selenium-iodine hypomicroelementosis in quails and guinea fowls adapting to new biogeochemical conditions. This study focused on golden Manchurian quails, Coturnix japonica (Temminck and Schlegel, 1849), and gray-speckled guinea fowls, Numida meleagris (Linnaeus, 1758), imported to the Astrakhan region in 2015 from the Krasnodar Krai, Russia. The major components of terrestrial ecosystem (soil, water, and plants) in the Astrakhan region were found to be low in selenium, iodine and cobalt. As a result, quails and guinea fowls received a diet with insufficient amounts of therein. All subjects were examined for microelements, physiological, hematological, and biochemical changes, and pituitary-thyroid hormones. In addition, the study examined antioxidant indicators and markers of free radical oxidation. The comprehensive examination revealed selenium deficiency and iodine deficiency in the body of examined quails and guinea fowls. The experimental birds were found to have elevated levels of blood corpuscles, glucose, diene conjugates, and malonic aldehyde. Levels of antioxidant vitamins (E, A, C) were found to be low. Based on the above, it can be concluded that golden Manchurian quails and gray-speckled guinea fowls raised in conditions of selenium deficiency and iodine deficiency can experience latent symptoms of hypomicroelementosis when fed a diet based on local plants. The consequence is a drop in egg productivity. Thus, farmers specialized at breeding quails and guinea fowls should considers feeds enriched with selenium and iodine when the local ecosystem lacks a sufficient amount of therein.

Keywords | Quails, Guinea fowls, Selenium, Iodine, Hypomicroelementosis.