Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Review Article
Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 2 (2S): 1 - 18. Special Issue-2 (Advances in Diagnosis and Control of Infectious Diseases of Animals)
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Sandip Chakraborty1*, Naveen Kumar2, Kuldeep Dhama3, Amit Kumar Verma4, Ruchi Tiwari5, Amit Kumar6, Sanjay Kapoor7, Shoor Vir Singh8
1Animal Resources Development Department, Pt. Nehru Complex, Agartala, Pin – 799006; 2.8Microbiology Laboratory, Animal Health Division, Central Institute for Research on Goats (CIRG), Makhdoom, PO-Farah, Dist. Mathura, Pin- 281122; 3Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly (U.P.)– 243122; 4Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine; 5,6Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura (U.P.) – 281001; 7Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (LLRUVAS), Hisar, Haryana- 125004, INDIA
*Corresponding author:

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was the first animal virus discovered by Friedrich Loeffler long back in 1898 and has been studied extensively. Despite this, it still remains mysterious due to its diverse nature and antigenic variability. Availability of the quick and reliable diagnostic tests and vaccines as well as logistical support required to eliminate this virus is still a matter of concern. In absence of quick and adequate control measures, it rapidly spreads across the continents. At present, Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is considered as one of the highly infectious, transboundary viral disease of cloven-footed animals which has a significant economic impact worldwide. Besides direct losses in terms of livestock producibility and productivity, it severely affects the trade of animal and animal products, the indirect losses of which may be higher than the direct losses. A significant success has been achieved in controlling the disease in several countries by means of effective and systematic vaccination programs, thorough sero-surveillance and vigorous stamping out policy (wherever possible). Countries like America, New Zealand, Australia and most of the Europe are free from FMD while it is still endemic in the Africa, most of the South America and several parts of the Asia including India. In India, the disease has emerged as one of the biggest hindrance for the growth of the livestock by adversely affecting productivity and international trade of animal and animal products. Prolonged convalescence, high contagiousness, wide geographical distribution, broader host spectrum, short duration of the immunity without inter-serotype cross protection, multiple modes of transmission and persistent infection (carrier state) all makes very difficult to control and eradicate this devastating disease. The FMDV also exists as a threat to developed nations due possible to trade and bio-terrorism attacks. The present review discusses FMD virus and the disease it causes, epidemiology, trends and advances in diagnosis, and appropriate prevention and control strategies to be adapted for combating this economical important disease of animals.

Key Words: Foot-and-Mouth Disease, FMD, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Vaccine, Prevention, Control