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Journal of Infection and Molecular Biology

Review Article
J. Inf. Mol. Biol. 4(2): 24-43
Http://dx.doi.org/10.14737/journal.jimb/2016/4.2.24.43
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Muhammed Hossain, Md. Jamal Uddin Bhuiyan 

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh.
 
Abstract | Hookworm infection is one of the neglected tropical disease which poses a global disease-burden by infecting 576 millions people around the world. Majority of hookworm infections are harbored by childern and adults. It is endemic in developing countries such as Asia, Africa, Southeast Asia, Bangladesh, Central and South America. Hookworm infection threats the mankind and cause anemia, hypo-albuminemia and malnutrition but other known effects include intellectual, cognitive impairment and stunted growth in children. Hookworm diagnosis is industrious as it has no gold standard diagnostic techniques, however, the ELISA shows moderate sensitivity and specificity to detect hookworm specific antibody titer in serum. Likewise, PCR method considered reliable for DNA detection in fecal samples.Lately, there is a drastic advancement in our realization about this widespread parasite. Advances in molecular biology had led to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship. Benzimidazole anthleminthics like albendazole, levamisole, mebendazole and pyrantel pamoate are the current corner stone for helminths treatment. This review aim to discuss currently published research on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, immune mechanism, prevention and control.

Keywords | Hookworm, Neglected, Prevention and review