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Journal of Infection and Molecular Biology

Review Article
J. Inf. Mol. Biol. 2 (4): 53 - 60
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Arfan Ahmad1*, Masood. Rabbani1, Muhammad. Younus3, Muhammad Nauman Zahid2, Aqeel Javed4, Aamir Ghafoor1
1University Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Quality Operations Laboratory University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan; 3College of Veterinary Sciences Jhang, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan; 4Department of Pharmacology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
*Corresponding author:

Bovine viral diarrhea is one of the most important diseases of cattle which is causing continuous economic losses to the cattle industry primarily due to decreased reproductive performance. Without doubt, direct contact between BVDV persistently infected, and susceptible animals is the most important transmission route of virus. All control programs which are in use in many countries of the world, mainly depend upon the detection of PI animals, eliminating them and preventing their return into the herds. Various diagnostic tests using ear notch biopsies and serum samples are in use with certain advantages and disadvantages. In detecting the BVDV persistent infection, a complete agreement (P value = 1) was observed between Real time RT–PCR, AC–ELISA, VI and IHC. All four assays were found specific but real time RT–PCR was found to be more sensitive. Both, VI and IHC were found labour intensive, as diagnosis may take more than one week to be made. Further peroxidase based IHC interpretation was found to be difficult somewhat due to subjective reasoning. It is generally recognized, that real time RT–PCR is more sensitive for BVDV detection than the other methods employed in the study period. However, use of real time RT–PCR for screening of individual animal cases is cost prohibited. AC–ELISA while relatively less sensitive was shown to has sufficient sensitivity for cost effective identification of PI. The results appear to warrant the use of AC–ELISA on ear notch biopsies for routine diagnosis of PI animals followed by real time RT–PCR on suspicious samples.

Key Words: Prevalence, Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Persistent infection, AC–ELISA, IHC