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Journal of Infection and Molecular Biology

Review Article
J. Inf. Mol. Biol. 1 (2): 20 - 26
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Atiya Yasmeen1, Tanveer Hussain*1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh2, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan3, Muhammad Nauman Zahid4, Ziaullah Mughal5, Sikander Khan Sherwani6, Syed Mubasher Hussain7, Muhammad Intizar7

1Institute of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore 54000, Pakistan; 2University Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore 54000, Pakistan; 3Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore 54000, Pakistan, 4Quality Operations Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore 54000, Pakistan; 5Pet Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore 54000, Pakistan; 6Federal Urdu University, Karachi; 7Remount Veterinary and Farm Corps, Pakistan Army
*Corresponding author: tanveer.hussain@uvas.edu.pk

ABSTRACT
Cytokines, which are recognized as signaling proteins are essential for both innate and adaptive immune response for their development and functioning, are produced by different types of cells. The expression of the cytokine gene is highly regulated and its expression and genetic polymorphisms have been applied in a variety of diseases, in treatments and in infection susceptibility. Recently it has been shown that the cytokines and their receptors are polymorphic in nature, and plays a significant role in regulating functions of normal immune system. The polymorphism that occurs in these genes are linked with a variety of immune diseases and to complications related to organ transplant. Currently the data related to disease is much contradictory and confusing, while in the analysis of cytokine the predominant form is single locus analysis. The use of polymorphic haplotype has become common as this gives the clear view about immune disfunction and the polymorphism associated the cytokine. For immune system and the traits of disease resistance, major histocompatibility complex i.e. MHC gene is considered very important. The associations of the polymorphism in autoimmune diseases, in cytokine gene, outcome of transplantation have been described. For the typing of single nucleotide polymorphism there exist several methods which could be applied for the typing of cytokine as well as variations of cytokine gene receptor. A method adopted in current study to type multiple cytokines and polymorphisms of receptor gene was SNaPshot, which is also called primer extension method. With the development we can apply this method in different laboratories in order to type cytokine SNPs in various populations and this helps in research.

Key Words: Cytokines, genes, SNPs, Markers