Journal of Animal Health and Production

Review Article
J. Anim. Health Prod. 9(s1): 97-109
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Mohamed Megahed1, Wala Mohamed2, Ola Hassanin1*

1Department of Avian and Rabbit Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44511, Egypt; 2The Educational Veterinary Hospital Zagazig University.

Abstract | Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild birds with worldwide distributions that listed A by OIE as it causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry. In developing country, it considers a major limiting factor for poultry production which represent an important source for income and food security. In Africa, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks is rampant for decades, however the information about the genetic characteristics of the virulent strains circulating Africa is still scarce. Based on the full genome length and F gene sequence, NDV strains are classified into class I (9 genotypes) and II (18 genotypes) within a single serotype. Outbreak in North African countries (like Egypt) caused by genotypes II, VI and VII. In the Eastern African countries such as Tanzania, genotypes V, VII and XIII are the circulating strains. In the central (Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Uganda) and western African countries (Mali, Mauritania, Côte d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso), newly circulating genotypes (XIV,XVII and XVIII) are isolated and restricted to this area in addition to other genotypes such as II, VII and V. In Southern African countries, (namely South Africa, Madagascar and Mozambique) genotypes II, VII, VIII, XI and XIII are prevalent. The variable NDV genotypes are been introduced to the different African countries via variable ways, wild and exotic birds, illegal poultry trading through neighboring borders or live bird market. The complex genetic diversity among circulating genotypes, sub optimal prevention afforded by the genotype II vaccine may be major factors that complicate the control of NDV in Africa.

Keywords | Newcastle disease virus, Genotypes, Africa, Genetic diversity, ND