Journal of Animal Health and Production

Review Article
J. Anim. Health Prod. 8(4): 171-182
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Doaa Sedky1, Alaa A. Ghazy1, Nouran A. Soliman2, Raafat M. Shaapan3*

1Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Post Box 12622, El-Tahrir Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; 2Clinical Pharmacy Dep., Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sadat City, Egypt; 3Department of Zoonotic Diseases, National Research Centre, Post Box 12622, El-Tahrir Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Abstract | Bovine milk is highly nutritive for people and calves as it contains macronutrients such as proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, in addition to micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals. Raw bovine milk is considered as a vehicle for many infectious bacterial diseases such as bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Mycoplasma infection. In addition to, infectious bacterial species associated with mastitis including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Corynebacteriun, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella species were also recorded. The aim of the present work is to high light on the diagnosis of the infectious bacteria in bovine milk. There are many available conventional and modern techniques used for the diagnosis of infectious bacteria in bovine milk. Conventional field tests such as somatic cell count, California mastitis test, electrical conductivity and pH tests have many advantages as they are convenient, non-expensive and can be used to monitor the udder health of the cattle. Microbial culture is a traditional technique which involves bacterial isolation, identification, microscopical examination, Gram staining, cultivation on enriched and selective media and studying of biochemical characters. Modern molecular diagnostic techniques are more valuable and offer more sensitive, fast and highly confident results such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real time PCR and whole genome sequencing. Another available diagnostic technique include immunological diagnosis using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to detect not only antibody in bovine milk samples against many infectious bacteria, but also it is used to evaluate the levels of acute phase proteins such as hapatoglobin, c-reactive protein and mammary associated serum amyloid A3. The early and accurate diagnosis is necessary for achieving successful control programs against the infectious bacteria in bovine milk. It is recommended to use modern molecular diagnostic techniques as they are more valuable and offer more sensitive, fast and highly confident results, moreover they deliver a detailed understanding of the exact diagnosis. In addition, their ability to detect bacterial pathogens in dead or living stage from fresh or preserved milk samples was reported.

Keywords | Bovine milk, Bacteria, Comparative diagnosis, Foodborne pathogen, Techniques