Journal of Animal Health and Production

Review Article
J. Anim. Health Prod. 8(3): 89-92
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Karim El-Sabrout1*, Farid Soliman1, Sarah Aggag2, Noha Mitwally3

1Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 3Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract | Coronaviruses have been recognized as causing pathological conditions to humans and animals since the 1960s and 1970s. Coronaviruses discovered from avian species are classified to the Genera Gamma- and Delta Coronaviruses which include the highly contagious infectious bronchitis viruses in poultry. Currently, we are facing a new Coronavirus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This new disease has rapidly converted from epidemic to pandemic according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Genetic analyses of public genome sequence data from SARS-Coronavirus-2 and related viruses found no evidence that this new virus was created or developed in a laboratory. Understanding the dynamics of this new virus, its mode of transmission, and how to avoid it, has become nowadays necessary. The main purposes of this review are to summarize recent discoveries related to this virus and to understand how to protect ourselves and our animals (pets, livestock) from it. The virus spreads mainly from humans to humans or from animals to humans through the air and by touching contaminated materials and it remains for several hours on surfaces and objects. Up till now, there is no enough evidence of any transmission of this virus from humans to animals (including birds) or from animals to animals. Furthermore, there is no confirmed vaccine against the new Coronavirus disease 2019 for humans or animals. Therefore, the best way to prevent yourself and your animals is by following the WHO standard recommendations, hygiene practices, and avoid contact with wild animals.

Keywords | Animal, Dissemination, Prevention, SARS-Coronavirus-2, Vaccine