Journal of Animal Health and Production

Research Article
J. Anim. Health Prod. 9(4): 406-416
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Hassan Mahmoud Diab1*, Ahmed S. Ahmed2, Gaber El-Saber Batiha3, Luay Alkazmi4 , Mona A. El-Zamkan2

1Department of Animal and Poultry Health and Environment, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt; 2Department of Food Hygiene and Control (Milk Hygiene), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt; 4Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract | Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) is a remerged threat to livestock health in the Middle East regions that has catastrophic economic implications. LSD has an endemic pattern in Egypt based on the epidemiological surveillances over decades which highlighted the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease episodes. Molecular epidemiology of LSD greatly enhance the genotypic data about the LSD viral strains in Egypt which significantly assets to select the convenient combating strategy to protect cattle herds health. This current study aimed to investigate LSD outbreak occurred in 2019 in Sohag governorate, Egypt among Eight cattle farms of small sized herd reared under byre housing systems. A total of 150 cows belong to 8 dairy cattle herds were examined. Samples including skin biopsy, nasal swabs and saliva dribbling were collected from clinically affected cows and bedding materials from their environments. The samples were used for molecular detection, phylogenetic analysis of LSD virus and identification of the bacterial species incorporated in secondary bacterial infection among infected cattle. Based on descriptive epidemiology of the outbreak, the overall prevalence of lumpy skin virus infection between May to July 2019 among all investigated herds was 25.3%. The intra-herd prevalences were ranged from 16.5% to 37.5%. The most predominating clinical manifestation was the appearance of cutaneous nodules in 75% infected animals. Oedema of fore or hind limbs and other parts of the body including brisket were observed in 26% of cases accompanied with various degree of lameness in 18% of the affected cows. Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli and Klebsiella species were isolated as secondary invaders from all type of samples. Molecular identification of the LSD virus revealed that P32 gene was successfully amplified in 63% of all examined samples. Overall, most of isolates exhibited strong degree of phylogenetic relatedness indicating that strains of LSD virus circulating in Egypt, have well established enzootic state. Further comprehensive analysis of the genetic phylogeny relatedness of LSD virus from Egypt and neighboring countries seem to be crucial to draw conclusive evidences regarding the transboundary threats of LSD to livestock health in Egypt. These will greatly assist to trace back the transmission episodes and to understand the molecular epidemiology of the LSD allover Egypt.

Keywords | Lumpy skin Diseases, Epidemiology, Herd Health, Cattle, Phylogeny