Journal of Animal Health and Production

Research Article
J. Anim. Health Prod. 9(s1): 20-25
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Basma M. El-Said1*, Ahmed Abdelbaset-Ismail2, Abdel Raouf M. Mahmoud1, Sobhy El-Maghawry1, Shimaa M. Gouda1

1Animal Medicine Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig, El-Sharkia, Egypt; 2Department of Surgery, Radiology and Anaesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig, El-Sharkia, Egypt.

Abstract | Changes in extracellular potassium levels affect not only the myocyte membrane potential gradients but also can alter the cardiac action potential that clinically expressed by electrocardiographic (ECG) changes. The aim of this work was therefore to describe the effect of serum potassium level changes (hyperkalemia and hypokalemia) on ECG measurements. Eighteen adult dogs were used and allocated into 3 equal groups (n=6 per each): Two hyperkalemic groups (1st and 2nd group) and one hypokalemic group (3rd group). To induce hyperkalemia, potassium chloride (KCl) solution was infused in a dose of 1000 mmol/L/hour and 3000 mmol/L/hour for 1st and 2nd group, respectively for 14 days. The 3rd group was treated with furosemide (40 mg /daily, iv) for 14 days. In all animals, ECG was performed pre- and post- medication. As noticed, in first group, the basal serum potassium (K) in the dogs remained constant as a normal without any observable ECG changes. In the second group, as expected, the level of serum K was found increased compared to control / 0 time (p<0.0001). The obtained ECG changes were an increased T-amplitude, decreased P-wave amplitude and prolonged PR interval; these changes increased progressively. In the third group, the mean of serum K level was decrease (4.17±0.15), and the features of notched and flattened T-waves, and prominent U-waves were showed in the ECG on 6th day. In conclusion, decreased P-wave amplitude and prolonged PR interval were common changes in ECG in hyperkalemia, whereas, the progression of U-wave was a common change in the ECG of hypokalemia.

Keywords | Dog, Electrocardiography, Heart; Hyperkalemia, Hypokalemia